The Global Fund for tuberculosis, malaria and AIDS is a type of financing mechanism which aims to pool donors unearmarked contributions in order to allocate the necessary resources to health related projects. Unlike other humanitarian and development pooled mechanisms which we examine (e.g. ERFs CHFs), this fund is sector specific.
Created in 2002 the fund has disbursed a total of US$ 19.3 billion for more than 572 programmes in 144 countries worldwide. It provides a quarter of all international financing for AIDS globally, two-thirds for tuberculosis and three quarters for malaria.
The fund also provides the necessary resources to support the achievement of Goal 6 of the Millenium Development Goals (MDGs) which aims to
- halt and begin to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS by 2015,
- achieve universal access to treatment for HIV/AIDS for all those who need it by 2010,
- halt by 2015 and begin to reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseases.
The fund is replenished every 2 years and on 5 October it held its 3rd replenishment conference for 2011-2013 in New York. A number of governments and private sector donors pledged a total of US$ 11.7 billion however this fell short of expectations. Future pledges from the Netherlands, UK and Sweden are supposed to bring the total to US$13 billion which would allow all programmes to be fully operational but not enough to enable the fund to expand into other countries.
The usual government donors were among the largest contributors with the US pledging US$4 billion and France pledging US$1.5 billion. However some non-DAC donors also made a promise to contribute to the fund. Russia pledged US$60 million, China US$14 million and Nigeria US$10 million ahead of 5 other non-DAC donors.
In 2008 China and Nigeria received large amounts of ODA (as reported through the OECD DAC), US$1.4 billion and US$555 million respectively. Of the money that was disbursed to health related projects in both countries (as reported through the OECD Creditor Reporting System), 17% was spent on HIV/AIDs, tuberculosis and malaria projects in Nigeria and 29% in China. According to the MDG tracking website Nigeria is yet to achieve goal 6, clearly both countries are having to tackle these specific health issues. Further evidence of this is that both countries have received and are continuing to receive direct funding from the Global Fund. Since 2003 Nigeria has received a total of US$480 million and China US450 million, ranking them as the 4th and 5th largest recipients of Global Fund money respectively.