In GHA’s latest country briefing paper we analyse the international and domestic response to the humanitarian crisis in Colombia, which has the highest levels of internally displaced persons (IDPs) in the world. The paper examines the resource flows to and within the country, including official development assistance (ODA), humanitarian aid, counter-narcotics funding, security investments, domestic resources, foreign direct investments and remittances.
Key findings from the report:
- Colombia’s gross domestic product (GDP) has almost doubled in the last 20 years – from 246 trillion Colombian pesos in 1993, to 471 trillion Colombian pesos 2012.
- State funding to internally displaced people (IDPs) as a proportion of the National Budget has increased by 24 times since 2000, following a series of court rulings in which the Government of Colombia was found not to be adequately addressing the needs of IDPs.
- Funding from the US totalled US$5.5 billion between 2002 and 2011, making up 62% of all Colombian ODA in that period.
- 64% of all US funding to Colombia between 2002 and 2011 was for narcotics control.
- Spain was the second largest donor to Colombia between 2002-2011, giving US$630 million.
- The top four funding areas in the 5 years between 2007 and 2011 were:
1. Narcotics control (US$1.2 billion, 26%).
2. Humanitarian aid (US$435 million, 9%).
3. Agricultural alternative development (US$434, 9%).
4. Legal and judicial development (US$432 million, 9%).
- Between 2004-2005 humanitarian funding to Colombia more than doubled, from US$45 million to US$ 94.5 million, in response to floods affecting over 600,000 people.
- Humanitarian aid to Colombia peaked at US$110 million in 2007.
- Colombia ranks 22nd in the world as a recipient of humanitarian aid from 2002-2011.
- The largest humanitarian aid donor to Colombia between 2001 and 2010 was the United States at US$219.8 million (26% all humanitarian aid), and the second largest was the EU, which gave US$203.4 million in the same period (24%)
Fig. 1: Channels of delivery – official development assistance and humanitarian aid to Colombia, 2007-2011
- Between 2007 and 2011, NGOs and civil society received the largest share of humanitarian aid (49%).
- The majority of ODA was channelled through the public sector (52%).
- As a proportion of total amounts, over six times as much ODA was channelled through the public sector as humanitarian aid, and almost three times as much humanitarian aid was channelled through NGOs and civil society as ODA.
- 17% of ODA was channelled through NGOs and civil society, and 11% went through multilateral organisations.
- Multilateral institutions received the second largest share of humanitarian aid at 36%.
- Colombia received US$3.5 billion in counter narcotics funding between 2002 and 2011
- 99.96% of this was from the US.
- 39.9% of all Colombian ODA in that period was US counter-narcotics funding.
- US ODA to Colombia has recently shifted its focus to judicial development.
- Between 1998 and 2003, remittance flows into Colombia increased by over four times, from US$1.5 billion to US$6.8 billion.
- Remittances have since dropped back down to US$3.9 billion, though they remain high compared to other countries in the region and other middle-income countries.
- Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in Colombia rose from US$1.3 billion in 1990 to US$12.3 billion in 2011, peaking at US$16 billion in 2005 (compared to an average increase from US$661 million to US$5.5 billion across the region).
- The global financial crisis contributed to a 30% decrease in Colombia’s FDI flows in 2009 to US$8.6 billion, followed by another 20% drop in 2010 to US$6.9 billion.
- However, in 2011 FDIs were up again at US$12.3 billion, representing around 1.2% of GDP
Read the full report here